Prevention

Interventions for treating brain arteriovenous malformations in adults

Abstract Background Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the single most common cause of intracerebral haemorrhage in young adults. Brain AVMs also cause seizure(s) and focal neurological deficits (in the absence of haemorrhage, migraine or an epileptic seizure); approximately one‐fifth are incidental discoveries. Various interventions are used in an attempt to eradicate brain AVMs: neurosurgical excision, […]

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Marine‐derived n‐3 fatty acids therapy for stroke

Abstract Background Currently, with stroke burden increasing, there is a need to explore therapeutic options that ameliorate the acute insult. There is substantial evidence of a neuroprotective effect of marine‐derived n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in experimental stroke, leading to a better functional outcome. Objectives To assess the effects of administration of marine‐derived n‐3 PUFAs […]

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Blood pressure‐lowering treatment for preventing recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack

Abstract Background Stroke is an important cause of death and disability worldwide. Since high blood pressure is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence, drugs that lower blood pressuremight play an important role in secondary stroke prevention. Objectives To investigate whether blood pressure‐lowering drugs (BPLDs) started at least 48 hours after the index […]

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Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents for primary prevention of thrombosis in individuals with antiphospholipid antibodies

Abstract Background Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by the presence ofantiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies that have prothrombotic activity. Antiphospholipidantibodies are associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications (recurrent miscarriage, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation) and thrombotic events (both arterial and venous). The most common thrombotic events include brain ischaemia (stroke or transient […]

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Antifibrinolytic therapy for preventing oral bleeding in people on anticoagulants undergoing minor oral surgery or dental extractions

Abstract Background Individuals on continuous treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oralanticoagulants (DOACs) are at increased risk of bleeding complications during and after oralor dental procedures. Anticoagulant treatment is preferably continued at the same dose, since dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism. The use of […]

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Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for perioperative monitoring of brain oxygenation in children and adults

Abstract Background Various techniques have been employed for the early detection of perioperative cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly used in this clinical scenario to monitor brain oxygenation. However, it is unknown whether perioperative cerebral NIRS monitoring and the subsequent treatment strategies are of benefit to patients. Objectives To assess the […]

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Direct oral anticoagulants versus warfarin for preventing stroke and systemic embolic events among atrial fibrillation patients with chronic kidney disease

Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), which is more prevalent among CKD patients than the general population. AF causes stroke or systemic embolism, leading to increased mortality. The conventional antithrombotic prophylaxis agent warfarin is often prescribed for the prevention of stroke, but risk of bleeding necessitates […]

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Educational and behavioural interventions for anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation

Abstract Background Current guidelines recommend oral anticoagulation therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with one or more risk factors for stroke; however, anticoagulation control (time in therapeutic range (TTR)) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is dependent on many factors. Educational and behavioural interventions may impact patients’ ability to maintain their international normalised ratio (INR) […]

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Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease

Abstract Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood […]

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Enzyme replacement therapy for Anderson-Fabry disease

Abstract Background Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked defect of glycosphingolipid metabolism. Progressive renal insufficiency is a major source of morbidity, additional complications result from cardio- and cerebro-vascular involvement. Survival is reduced among affected males and symptomatic female carriers. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010, and previously updated in 2013. […]

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