Prevention

Intravenous versus inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia for postoperative cognitive outcomes in elderly people undergoing non‐cardiac surgery

Abstract Background The use of anaesthetics in the elderly surgical population (more than 60 years of age) is increasing. Postoperative delirium, an acute condition characterized by reduced awareness ofthe environment and a disturbance in attention, typically occurs between 24 and 72 hours after surgery and can affect up to 60% of elderly surgical patients. Postoperative […]

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L‐ornithine L‐aspartate for prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in people with cirrhosis

Abstract Background Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis and has high associated morbidity and mortality. The condition is classified as overt if it is clinically apparent orminimal if only evident though psychometric testing. The exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is unknown although ammonia is thought to play a key role. L‐ornithineL‐aspartate has ammonia‐lowering […]

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Effect of the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus on the development of cognitive impairment and dementia

Abstract Background Prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia is an important public health goal. Epidemiological evidence shows a relationship between cognitive impairment and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk of dementia increases with duration of disease. This updated systematic review investigated the effect on cognitive function of the type of treatment and level of metabolic […]

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Antihypertensive withdrawal for the prevention of cognitive decline

Abstract Background Clinical trials and observational data have variously shown a protective, harmful or neutral effect of antihypertensives on cognitive function. In theory, withdrawal of antihypertensives could improve cerebral perfusion and reduce or delay cognitive decline. However, it is also plausible that withdrawal of antihypertensives may have a detrimental effect on cognition through increased incidence […]

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Interventions for preventing and ameliorating cognitive deficits in adults treated with cranial irradiation

Abstract Background Cognitive deficits are common in people who have received cranial irradiation and have a serious impact on daily functioning and quality of life. The benefit of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in this population is unclear. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing or ameliorating cognitive deficits in adult […]

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Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia

Abstract Background Evidence from observational studies suggests that diets high in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may protect people from cognitive decline and dementia. The strength of this potential protective effect has recently been tested in randomised controlled trials. Objectives To assess the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of dementia and […]

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Cognition-based interventions for healthy older people and people with mild cognitive impairment

Abstract Background Evidence from some, but not all non-randomised studies suggest the possibility that cognitive training may influence cognitive functioning in older people. Due to the differences among cognitive training interventions reported in the literature, giving a general overview of the current literature remains difficult. Objectives To systematically review the literature and summarize the effect […]

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Blood pressure lowering in patients without prior cerebrovascular disease for prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia

Abstract Background This is an update of a previous review (McGuinness 2006). Hypertension and cognitive impairment are prevalent in older people. Hypertension is a direct risk factor for vascular dementia (VaD) and recent studies have suggested hypertension impacts upon prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore does treatment of hypertension prevent cognitive decline? Objectives To assess […]

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Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for the prevention and treatment of healthy elderly and demented people

Abstract Background Folate deficiency can result in congenital neural tube defects and megaloblastic anaemia. Low folate levels may be due to insufficient dietary intake or inefficient absorption, but impaired metabolic utilization also occurs. Because B12 deficiency can produce a similar anaemia to folate deficiency, there is a risk that folate supplementation can delay the diagnosis […]

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