Movement disorders

Botulinum toxin type A therapy for blepharospasm

Abstract Background Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterized by chronic intermittent or persistent involuntary eyelid closure due to spasmodic contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscles. Other facial and neck muscles are also frequently involved. Most cases are idiopathic and blepharospasm is generally a life-long disorder. Its severity can range from repeated frequent blinking to persistent […]

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Botulinum toxin type A versus botulinum toxin type B for cervical dystonia

Abstract Background This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003. Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia and is a disabling disorder characterised by painful involuntary head posturing. There are two available formulations of botulinum toxin, with botulinum toxin type A (BtA) usually considered the first line therapy […]

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Amantadine for dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Background Abnormal involuntary movements known as dyskinesias are amongst the most disabling side-effects of levodopa therapy. It is thought that amantadine, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, may reduce dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson’s disease without worsening Parkinsonian symptoms. Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of adjuvant amantadine therapy versus placebo in treating dyskinesia in patients […]

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Therapies for depression in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. 40% of observed variation in quality of life is due to depression. However, there is little hard evidence of the efficacy and safety of antidepressant therapies in Parkinson’s disease. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of antidepressant therapies in idiopathic […]

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Amantadine in Parkinson’s Diseas

Abstract Background Although levodopa is the most common drug prescribed to relieve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease it is associated with motor and psychiatric side-effects. Consequently, interest has turned to alternative drugs with improved side-effect profiles to replace or augment levodopa. Amantadine, originally used as an antiviral drug, has been shown to improve the symptoms […]

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Beta-blocker therapy for tremor in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Background The tremor of Parkinson’s disease can cause considerable disability for the individual concerned. Traditional antiparkinsonian therapies such as levodopa have only a minor effect on tremor. Beta-blockers are used to attenuate other forms of tremor such as Essential Tremor or the tremor associated with anxiety. It is thought that beta-blockers may be of […]

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Anticholinergics for symptomatic management of Parkinson´s disease

Abstract Background Anticholinergics were the first drugs available for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson´s disease and they are still widely used today, both as monotherapy and as part of combination regimes. They are commonly believed to be associated with a less favourable side effect profile than other antiparkinsonian drugs, in particular with respect to neuropsychiatric […]

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Cabergoline for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Background Long term levodopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease is associated with the development of motor complications including abnormal involuntary movements and a shortening response to each dose (wearing off phenomenon). It is thought that dopamine agonists can reduce the duration of immobile off periods and the need for levodopa therapy whilst maintaining or improving […]

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Cabergoline versus bromocriptine for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Background Long term levodopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease is associated with the development of motor complications including abnormal involuntary movements and a shortening response to each dose (wearing off phenomenon). It is thought that dopamine agonists can reduce the duration of immobile off periods and the need for levodopa therapy whilst maintaining or improving […]

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Ropinirole for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Background Long-term levodopa therapy for Parkinson’s disease is complicated by the development of motor fluctuations and abnormal involuntary movements. One approach is to add a dopamine agonist at this stage of the disease to reduce the time the patient spends immobile or off and to reduce the dose of levodopa in the hope of […]

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