Neuro child

Xenon as an adjuvant to therapeutic hypothermia in near‐term and term newborns with hypoxic‐ischaemic encephalopathy

Abstract Background Hypoxic‐ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious birth complication affecting term and late preterm newborns. Although therapeutic hypothermia (cooling) has been shown to be an effective therapy for neonatal HIE, many cooled infants have poor long‐term neurodevelopmental outcomes. In animal models of neonatal encephalopathy, inhaled xenon combined with cooling has been shown to offer […]

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Parent‐mediated communication interventions for improving the communication skills of preschool children with non‐progressive motor disorders

Abstract Background Children with motor disorders can have difficulties in producing accurate and consistent movements for speech, gesture or facial expression (or a combination of these), making their communication difficult to understand. Parents may be offered training to help recognise and interpret their child‘s signals and to stimulate their children‘s development of new communication skills. […]

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Diagnostic tests for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in preschool children

Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviourally diagnosed condition. It is defined by impairments in social communication or the presence of restricted or repetitive behaviours, or both. Diagnosis is made according to existing classification systems. In recent years, especially following publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ‐ Fifth Edition […]

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Intervention for childhood apraxia of speech

Abstract Background Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) affects a child’s ability to produce sounds and syllables precisely and consistently, and to produce words and sentences with accuracy and correctspeech rhythm. It is a rare condition, affecting only 0.1% of the general population. Consensus has been reached that three core features have diagnostic validity: (1) inconsistent […]

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Trihexyphenidyl for dystonia in cerebral palsy

Abstract Background Cerebral palsy occurs in up to 2.1 of every 1000 live births and encompasses a range of motor problems and movement disorders. One commonly occurring movement disorder amongst those with cerebral palsy is dystonia: sustained or intermittent involuntary muscle spasms and contractions that cause twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. The involuntary contractions […]

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Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents – assessment of adverse events in non‐randomised studies

Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication to treat it. Several studies have investigated the benefits of methylphenidate, showing possible favourable effects on ADHD symptoms, but the true magnitude of the effect is unknown. Concerning adverse events associated with […]

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Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

Abstract Background The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases the need for evidence‐based behavioral treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms on children‘s functioning. At present, there are no curative or psychopharmacological therapies to effectively treat all symptoms of the disorders. Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is a treatment based on the principles […]

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Care delivery and self-management strategies for children with epilepsy

Abstract Background In response to criticism that epilepsy care for children has little impact, healthcare professionals and administrators have developed various service models and strategies to address perceived inadequacies. Objectives To assess the effects of any specialised or dedicated intervention for epilepsy versus usual care in children with epilepsy and in their families. Search methods […]

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Drug management for acute tonic-clonic convulsions including convulsive status epilepticus in children

Abstract Background Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, […]

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Triage tools for detecting cervical spine injury in pediatric trauma patients

Abstract Background Pediatric cervical spine injury (CSI) after blunt trauma is rare. Nonetheless, missing these injuries can have severe consequences. To prevent the overuse of radiographic imaging, two clinical decision tools have been developed: The National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria and the Canadian C-spine Rule (CCR). Both tools are proven to be accurate […]

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