Neuro child

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major problem in children and adolescents, characterised by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and is associated with long-term social, academic and mental health problems. The stimulant medications methylphenidate and amphetamine are the most frequently used treatments for ADHD, but these are not always effective […]

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Intraventricular antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in neonates

Abstract Background Neonatal meningitis may be caused by bacteria, especially gram-negative bacteria, which are difficult to eradicate from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using safe doses of antibiotics. In theory, intraventricular administration of antibiotics would produce higher antibiotic concentrations in the CSF than intravenous administration alone, and eliminate the bacteria more quickly. However, ventricular taps may […]

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Intravenous secretin for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

Abstract Background In 1998 secretin, a gastrointestinal hormone, was suggested as an effective treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) based on anecdotal evidence. Objectives To assess whether intravenous secretin improves the core features of ASD, other aspects of behaviour or function such as self-injurious behaviour, and the quality of life of affected individuals and their […]

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Tricyclic antidepressants for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children and adolescents

Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, ranging in severity and characterised by early onset of delay and deviance in the development of social interaction, and verbal and nonverbal communication. ASD is associated with restricted and/or stereotyped interests or behaviours. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) block noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake, increasing […]

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Carnitine supplementation for inborn errors of metabolism

Abstract Background Inborn errors of metabolism are genetic conditions which can lead to abnormalities in the synthesis and metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, or fats. It has been proposed that in some instances carnitine supplementation should be provided to infants with a suspected metabolic disease as an interim measure, particularly whilst awaiting test results. Carnitine supplementation […]

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Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

Abstract Background Auditory integration therapy was developed as a technique for improving abnormal sound sensitivity in individuals with behavioural disorders including autism spectrum disorders. Other sound therapies bearing similarities to auditory integration therapy include the Tomatis Method and Samonas Sound Therapy. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of auditory integration therapy or other methods of sound […]

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Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

Abstract Background It has been suggested that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be partially explained by deficits of omega-3 fatty acids, and that supplementation of these essential fatty acids may lead to improvement of symptoms. Objectives To review the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for improving core features of ASD (for example, […]

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Acupuncture for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication and lack of flexibility of thought and behavior. Acupuncture, which involves the use of needles or pressure to specific points on the body, is used widely in Traditional Chinese Medicine and increasingly within a western medical paradigm. It has […]

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Treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea for chronic cough in children

Abstract Background Childhood obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a disorder that is characterised by repeated episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstruction (UAO) during sleep that result in disruption of normal ventilation and sleep patterns. Chronic cough in children is a significant medical problem and in some situations warrants thorough investigation. There may be […]

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Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders

Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include the stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine; nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child with tic disorder, […]

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