Alcohol and drugs

Antidepressants for the treatment of people with co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence

Abstract Background Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem characterized by recidivism, and medical and psychosocial complications. The co-occurrence of major depression in people entering treatment for alcohol dependence is common, and represents a risk factor for morbidity and mortality, which negatively influences treatment outcomes. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of antidepressants […]

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Personalised digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in community-dwelling populations

Abstract Background Excessive alcohol use contributes significantly to physical and psychological illness, injury and death, and a wide array of social harm in all age groups. A proven strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption levels is to offer a brief conversation-based intervention in primary care settings, but more recent technological innovations have enabled people to […]

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Baclofen for alcohol withdrawal

Abstract Background Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. Objectives […]

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Opioid antagonists with minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal

Abstract Background Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of long-term substitution treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of opioid antagonists plus minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal. Comparators were placebo as well as more established approaches to detoxification, such as tapered doses of methadone, adrenergic agonists, buprenorphine and […]

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Buprenorphine for managing opioid withdrawal

Abstract Background Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of substitution treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of buprenorphine versus tapered doses of methadone, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, symptomatic medications or placebo, or different buprenorphine regimens for managing opioid withdrawal, in terms of the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome experienced, […]

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Psychosocial interventions for psychostimulant misuse

Abstract Background Psychostimulant misuse is a continuously growing medical and social burden. There is no evidence proving the efficacy of pharmacotherapy. Psychosocial interventions could be a valid approach to help patients in reducing or ceasing drug consumption. Objectives To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for psychostimulant misuse in adults. Search methods We searched the […]

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Psychostimulant drugs for cocaine dependence

Abstract Background Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also […]

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Motivational interviewing for alcohol misuse in young adults

bstract Background Alcohol use and misuse in young people is a major risk behaviour for mortality and morbidity. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a popular technique for addressing excessive drinking in young adults. Objectives To assess the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for preventing alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in young adults. Search methods We […]

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Opioid agonist treatment for pharmaceutical opioid dependent people

Abstract Background There are increasing concerns regarding pharmaceutical opioid harms including overdose and dependence, with an associated increase in treatment demand. People dependent on pharmaceutical opioids appear to differ in important ways from people who use heroin, yet most opioid agonist treatment research has been conducted in people who use heroin. Objectives To assess the […]

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Alpha2-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal

Abstract Background Withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of long-term substitution treatment. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions involving the use of alpha2-adrenergic agonists compared with placebo, reducing doses of methadone, symptomatic medications, or an alpha2-adrenergic agonist regimen different to the experimental intervention, for the management of […]

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