Intensive and Palliative care

Melatonin for the promotion of sleep in adults in the intensive care unit

Abstract Background Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience sleep deprivation caused by environmental disruption, such as high noise levels and 24‐hour lighting, as well as increased patient care activities and invasive monitoring as part of their care. Sleep deprivation affects physical and psychological health, and patients perceive the quality of their sleep to […]

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Early intervention (mobilization or active exercise) for critically ill adults in the intensive care unit

Abstract Background Survivors of critical illness often experience a multitude of problems that begin in the intensive care unit (ICU) or present and continue after discharge. These can include muscle weakness, cognitive impairments, psychological difficulties, reduced physical function such as in activities of daily living (ADLs), and decreased quality of life. Early interventions such as […]

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Propofol for the promotion of sleep in adults in the intensive care unit

Background People in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience sleep deprivation caused by environmental disruption, such as high noise levels and 24-hour lighting, as well as increased patient care activities and invasive monitoring as part of their care. Sleep deprivation affects physical and psychological health, and people perceive the quality of their sleep to be […]

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Elevation of the head during intensive care management in people with severe traumatic brain injury

Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem and a fundamental cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of TBI disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. Intracranial hypertension is the most frequent cause of death and disability in brain-injured people. Special interventions in the intensive care unit are required to […]

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Interventions for the reduction of prescribed opioid use in chronic non-cancer pain

Abstract Background This is the first update of the original Cochrane Review published in 2013. The conclusions of this review have not changed from the 2013 publication. People with chronic non-cancer pain who are prescribed and are taking opioids can have a history of long-term, high-dose opioid use without effective pain relief. In those without […]

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Foam dressings for treating pressure ulcers

Abstract Background Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure injuries and bed sores, are localised areas of injury to the skin or underlying tissues, or both. Dressings made from a variety of materials, including foam, are used to treat pressure ulcers. An evidence-based overview of dressings for pressure ulcers is needed to enable informed decision-making on […]

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Drug therapy for symptoms associated with anxiety in adult palliative care patients

Abstract Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2004 (Issue 1) and previously updated in 2012 (Issue 10). Anxiety is common in palliative care patients. It can be a natural response to the complex uncertainty of having a life-limiting illness or impending death, but it may represent a clinically significant […]

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Ultrasonography for confirmation of gastric tube placement

Abstract Background Gastric tubes are commonly used for the administration of drugs and tube feeding for people who are unable to swallow. Feeding via a tube misplaced in the trachea can result in severe pneumonia. Therefore, the confirmation of tube placement in the stomach after tube insertion is important. Recent studies have reported that ultrasonography […]

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Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease

Abstract Background This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease. Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their […]

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Admission avoidance hospital at home

Abstract Background Admission avoidance hospital at home provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient’s home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care, and always for a limited time period. This is the third update of the original review. Objectives To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with […]

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