Dementia

De‐escalation techniques for managing non‐psychosis induced aggression in adults

Abstract Background Aggression occurs frequently within health and social care settings. It can result in injury to patients and staff and can adversely affect staff performance and well‐being. De‐escalation is a widely used and recommended intervention for managing aggression, but the efficacy of the intervention as a whole and the specific techniques that comprise it […]

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Intravenous versus inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia for postoperative cognitive outcomes in elderly people undergoing non‐cardiac surgery

Abstract Background The use of anaesthetics in the elderly surgical population (more than 60 years of age) is increasing. Postoperative delirium, an acute condition characterized by reduced awareness ofthe environment and a disturbance in attention, typically occurs between 24 and 72 hours after surgery and can affect up to 60% of elderly surgical patients. Postoperative […]

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Mindfulness-based stress reduction for family carers of people with dementia

Abstract Background Caring for people with dementia is highly challenging, and family carers are recognised as being at increased risk of physical and mental ill‐health. Most current interventions have limited success in reducing stress among carers of people with dementia. Mindfulness‐based stress reduction (MBSR) draws on a range of practices and may be a promising […]

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Blood pressure‐lowering treatment for preventing recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack

Abstract Background Stroke is an important cause of death and disability worldwide. Since high blood pressure is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence, drugs that lower blood pressuremight play an important role in secondary stroke prevention. Objectives To investigate whether blood pressure‐lowering drugs (BPLDs) started at least 48 hours after the index […]

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Environmental and behavioural modifications for improving food and fluid intake in people with dementia

Abstract Background Weight loss, malnutrition and dehydration are common problems for people with dementia.Environmental modifications such as, change of routine, context or ambience at mealtimes, or behavioural modifications, such as education or training of people with dementia or caregivers, may be considered to try to improve food and fluid intake and nutritional status ofpeople with […]

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Cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of delirium in non‐ICU settings

Abstract Background Delirium is a common clinical syndrome defined as alterations in attention with an additional disturbance in cognition or perception, which develop over a short period of time and tend to fluctuate during the course of the episode. Delirium is commonly treated in hospitals or community settings and is often associated with multiple adverse […]

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L‐ornithine L‐aspartate for prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in people with cirrhosis

Abstract Background Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis and has high associated morbidity and mortality. The condition is classified as overt if it is clinically apparent orminimal if only evident though psychometric testing. The exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is unknown although ammonia is thought to play a key role. L‐ornithineL‐aspartate has ammonia‐lowering […]

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Pharmacological interventions for apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract Background Despite the high prevalence of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and its harmful effects, there are currently no therapies proven to treat this symptom. Recently, a number of pharmacological therapies have been investigated as potential treatments for apathy in AD. Objectives Objective 1: To assess the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapies for the […]

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Mini-Cog for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease dementia and other dementias within a primary care setting

Abstract Background Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia are becoming increasingly common with the aging of most populations. The majority of individuals with dementia will first present for care and assessment in primary care settings. There is a need for brief dementia screening instruments that can accurately diagnose dementia in primary care settings. The […]

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Personally tailored activities for improving psychosocial outcomes for people with dementia in long-term care

Abstract Background People with dementia who are being cared for in long-term care settings are often not engaged in meaningful activities. Offering them activities which are tailored to their individual interests and preferences might improve their quality of life and reduce challenging behaviour. Objectives ∙ To assess the effects of personally tailored activities on psychosocial […]

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