Pharmacological treatment

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for sciatica

Abstract Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently prescribed drugs for the treatment of sciatica. A previous Cochrane review on the efficacy of NSAIDs summarised findings for acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. This is an update of the original review (2008) focusing on people suffering from sciatica. […]

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Paracetamol for low back pain

Abstract Background Analgesic medication is the most frequently prescribed treatment for low back pain (LBP), of which paracetamol (acetaminophen) is recommended as the first choice medication. However, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of paracetamol for LBP. Objectives To investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for non-specific LBP. Search methods We conducted searches on […]

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Hydromorphone for neuropathic pain in adults

Abstract Background Opioid drugs, including hydromorphone, are commonly used to treat neuropathic pain, and are considered effective by some professionals. Most reviews have examined all opioids together. This review sought evidence specifically for hydromorphone, at any dose, and by any route of administration. Other opioids are considered in separate reviews. This review is part of […]

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Tapentadol for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

Abstract Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a prevalent condition and a major cause of disability and absence from the workplace worldwide. Opioids are frequently used to treat chronic pain, although adverse effects often restrict their long-term benefits. Tapentadol is an opioid and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, which may cause a lower incidence (and severity) of adverse […]

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Herbal medicine for low back pain

Abstract Background Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is […]

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Nonoperative treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic claudication

Abstract Background Lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic claudication is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated pathological spinal conditions. It frequently afflicts the elderly population. Objectives To systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic claudication. Search methods CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Index to Chiropractic Literature […]

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Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low-back pain

Abstract Background The effectiveness of injection therapy for low-back pain is still debatable. Heterogeneity of target tissue, pharmacological agent and dosage generally found in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) points to the need for clinically valid comparisons in a literature synthesis. Objectives To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for […]

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain

Abstract Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide and are widely used for patients with low-back pain. Selective COX-2 inhibitors are currently available and used for patients with low-back pain. Objectives The objective was to assess the effects of NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors in the treatment of non-specific low-back pain […]

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Prolotherapy injections for chronic low-back pain

Abstract Background Prolotherapy involves repeated injections of irritant solutions to strengthen lumbosacral ligaments and reduce some types of chronic low-back pain; spinal manipulation and exercises are often used to enhance its effectiveness. Objectives To determine the efficacy of prolotherapy in adults with chronic low-back pain. Search methods We searched CENTRAL 2006, Issue 3 and MEDLINE, […]

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Muscle relaxants for non-specific low-back pain

Abstract Background The use of muscle relaxants in the management of non-specific low back pain is controversial. It is not clear if they are effective, and concerns have been raised about the potential adverse effects involved. Objectives The aim of this review was to determine if muscle relaxants are effective in the treatment of non-specific […]

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