Skeletal muscles diseases

Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise

Abstract Background Muscle soreness typically occurs after intense exercise, unaccustomed exercise or actions that involve eccentric contractions where the muscle lengthens while under tension. It peaks between 24 and 72 hours after the initial bout of exercise. Many people take antioxidant supplements or antioxidant-enriched foods before and after exercise in the belief that these will […]

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Invasive versus non-invasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure in neuromuscular disease and chest wall disorders

Abstract Background Acute respiratory failure is a common life-threatening complication of acute onset neuromuscular diseases, and may exacerbate chronic hypoventilation in patients with neuromuscular disease or chest wall disorders. Standard management includes oxygen supplementation, physiotherapy, cough assistance, and, whenever needed, antibiotics and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) via nasal, buccal or full-face […]

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Enzyme replacement therapy for infantile-onset Pompe disease

Abstract Background Infantile-onset Pompe disease is a rare and progressive autosomal-recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). Current treatment involves enzyme replacement therapy (with recombinant human alglucosidase alfa) and symptomatic therapies (e.g. to control secretions). Children who are cross-reactive immunological material (CRIM)-negative require immunomodulation prior to commencing enzyme replacement […]

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Interventions to prevent and treat corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and prevent osteoporotic fractures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Abstract Background Corticosteroid treatment is considered the ‘gold standard’ for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, it is also known to induce osteoporosis and thus increase the risk of vertebral fragility fractures. Good practice in the care of those with DMD requires prevention of these adverse effects. Treatments to increase bone mineral density include bisphosphonates and […]

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Corticosteroids for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common muscular dystrophy of childhood. Untreated, this incurable disease, which has an X-linked recessive inheritance, is characterised by muscle wasting and loss of walking ability, leading to complete wheelchair dependence by 13 years of age. Prolongation of walking is a major aim of treatment. Evidence from […]

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Interventions for dysphagia in long-term, progressive muscle disease

Abstract Background Normal swallowing function is divided into oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal phases. The anatomy and physiology of the oral cavity facilitates an oral preparatory phase of swallowing, in which food and liquid are pushed towards the pharynx by the tongue. During pharyngeal and oesophageal phases of swallowing, food and liquid are moved from the […]

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Surgery for scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Abstract Background Scoliosis in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is usually progressive and is treated with surgery. However, it is unclear whether the existing evidence is sufficiently scientifically rigorous to support a recommendation for spinal surgery for most patients with DMD and scoliosis. This is an updated review, and an updated search was undertaken […]

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Whole-body cryotherapy for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults

Abstract Background Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective […]

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Treatment for inclusion body myositis

Abstract Background Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a late-onset inflammatory muscle disease (myopathy) associated with progressive proximal and distal limb muscle atrophy and weakness. Treatment options have attempted to target inflammatory and atrophic features of this condition (for example with immunosuppressive and immunomodulating drugs, anabolic steroids, and antioxidant treatments), although as yet there is no […]

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Quinine for muscle cramps

Abstract Background Muscle cramps can occur anywhere and for many reasons. Quinine has been used to treat cramps of all causes. However, controversy continues about its efficacy and safety. This review was first published in 2010 and searches were updated in 2014. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of quinine‐based agents in treating muscle […]

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