Other movement disorders

Gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Chronic antipsychotic drug treatment may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a long-term movement disorder. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist drugs, which have intense sedative properties and may exacerbate psychotic symptoms, have been used to treat TD. Objectives 1. Primary objective The primary objective was to determine whether using non-benzodiazepine GABA agonist drugs for at least […]

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Calcium channel blockers for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Schizophrenia and related disorders affect a sizable proportion of any population. Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for these disorders. Antipsychotic medications are associated with a variety of adverse effects including tardive dyskinesia. Dyskinesia is a disfiguring movement disorder of the orofacial region that can be tardive (having a slow or belated onset). […]

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Miscellaneous treatments for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) – a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of […]

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Cholinergic medication for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. Objectives To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, […]

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Benzodiazepines for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring movement disorder, often of the orofacial region, frequently caused by using antipsychotic drugs. A wide range of strategies have been used to help manage TD, and for those who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the benzodiazepine group of drugs have been […]

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Non-antipsychotic catecholaminergic drugs for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disabling movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of antipsychotic medication. Several strategies have been examined in the treatment of TD. Currently, however, there is no clear evidence of the effectiveness of these drugs in TD and they have been associated with many side effects. One particular strategy […]

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Vitamin E for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) – a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. Vitamin E has been proposed as a treatment to prevent […]

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Anticholinergic medication for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with serious mental illnesses. However, it is associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including movement disorders. Because of this, many people treated with antipsychotic medication also receive anticholinergic drugs in order to reduce some of the associated movement side-effects. However, there is […]

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Botulinum toxin for motor and phonic tics in Tourette’s syndrome

Abstract Background Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, or Tourette’s syndrome, is defined as the presence of both motor and vocal (phonic) tics for more than 12 months, that manifest before the age of 18 years, in the absence of secondary causes. Treatment of motor and phonic tics is difficult and challenging. Objectives To determine the […]

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Botulinum toxin type A therapy for cervical dystonia

Abstract Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005. Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia and is a highly disabling movement disorder characterised by involuntary, usually painful, head posturing. Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered the first line therapy for this condition. Objectives To […]

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