Antiepileptic Drugs

Anti‐seizure medications for Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome

Abstract Background Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is an age‐specific epilepsy syndrome characterised by multiple seizure types, including drop seizures. LGS has a characteristic electroencephalogram, an onset before age eight years and an association with drug resistance. This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review published in 2013. Objectives To assess the efficacy and tolerability of […]

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Rufinamide add‐on therapy for drug‐resistant epilepsy

Abstract Background Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often […]

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Pharmacological treatment for continuous spike-wave during slow wave sleep syndrome and Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Abstract Background Continuous spike‐wave during slow wave sleep syndrome (CSWS) and Landau‐Kleffner syndrome (LKS) are two epileptic encephalopathies that present with neurocognitive regression, aphasia, and clinical seizures, typically presenting in children around five years of age. The pathophysiology of these conditions is not completely understood. Some studies suggest a common origin for both. No systematic […]

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Vigabatrin for refractory partial epilepsy

Abstract Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2008 and updated in 2013. Epilepsy is a common neurological condition which affects up to 1% of the population. Approximately 30% of people with epilepsy do not respond to treatment with currently available drugs. The majority of these people have focal […]

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Zonisamide add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy

Abstract Background The majority of people with epilepsy have a good prognosis, and their seizures can be well controlled with the use of a single antiepileptic agent, but up to 30% develop dug‐resistant epilepsy, especially those with focal seizures. In this review, we summarised the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) of zonisamide, used as […]

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Stiripentol add‐on therapy for drug‐resistant focal epilepsy

Abstract Background This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review first published in 2014, and last updated in 2018. For nearly 30% of people with epilepsy, seizures are not controlled by current treatments. Stiripentol is an antiepileptic drug (AED) that was developed in France and was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in […]

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Clonazepam add‐on therapy for drug‐resistant epilepsy

Abstract Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2018, Issue 5. Epilepsy affects over 70 million people worldwide, and nearly a quarter of patients with seizures have drug‐resistant epilepsy. People with drug‐resistant epilepsy have increased risks of premature death, injuries, psychosocial dysfunction, and a reduced quality of life. Objectives […]

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Oxcarbazepine add-on for drug-resistant focal epilepsy

Abstract Background Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder. In approximately 30% of epilepsy cases, seizures are uncontrolled by one antiepileptic drug (AED). These people require treatment with a combination of multiple AEDs and are described as having drug‐resistant epilepsy. Oxcarbazepine is a keto‐analogue of carbamazepine, an established AED, and can be used as an add‐on […]

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Rapid versus slow withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs

Abstract Background The ideal objective of treating a person with epilepsy is to induce remission (free of seizures for some time) using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and withdraw the AEDs without causing seizure recurrence. Prolonged usage of AEDs may have long‐term adverse effects. Hence, when a person with epilepsy is in remission, it is logical to […]

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Clonazepam monotherapy for treating people with newly diagnosed epilepsy

Abstract Background Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with an age‐adjusted prevalence of 4 to 8 per 1000 population and an age‐adjusted incidence of 44 per 100,000 person‐years in developed countries. Monotherapy represents the best therapeutic option in people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Objectives To assess the efficacy and tolerability of […]

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