Delirium

Intravenous versus inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia for postoperative cognitive outcomes in elderly people undergoing non‐cardiac surgery

Abstract Background The use of anaesthetics in the elderly surgical population (more than 60 years of age) is increasing. Postoperative delirium, an acute condition characterized by reduced awareness ofthe environment and a disturbance in attention, typically occurs between 24 and 72 hours after surgery and can affect up to 60% of elderly surgical patients. Postoperative […]

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Cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of delirium in non‐ICU settings

Abstract Background Delirium is a common clinical syndrome defined as alterations in attention with an additional disturbance in cognition or perception, which develop over a short period of time and tend to fluctuate during the course of the episode. Delirium is commonly treated in hospitals or community settings and is often associated with multiple adverse […]

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L‐ornithine L‐aspartate for prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in people with cirrhosis

Abstract Background Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis and has high associated morbidity and mortality. The condition is classified as overt if it is clinically apparent orminimal if only evident though psychometric testing. The exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is unknown although ammonia is thought to play a key role. L‐ornithineL‐aspartate has ammonia‐lowering […]

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Pharmacological interventions for clozapine-induced sinus tachycardia

Abstract Background Clozapine is an efficacious treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia; however its use can be limited by side effect intolerability. Sinus tachycardia is a common adverse event associated with clozapine treatment. Various pharmacological treatments are used to control heart rate increase due to clozapine use and can include a decreased rate of clozapine titration, a […]

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Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients

Abstract Background Delirium is a common mental disorder, which is distressing and has serious adverse outcomes in hospitalised patients. Prevention of delirium is desirable from the perspective of patients and carers, and healthcare providers. It is currently unclear, however, whether interventions for preventing delirium are effective. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing […]

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Interventions for preventing delirium in older people in institutional long-term care

Abstract Background Delirium is a common and distressing complication of a range of stressor events including infection, new medications and environment change that is often experienced by older people with frailty and dementia. Older people living in institutional long-term care (LTC) are at high risk of delirium, which increases the risk of admission to hospital, […]

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Benzodiazepines for delirium

Abstract Background Delirium occurs in 30% of hospitalised patients and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. The results of uncontrolled studies have been unclear, with some suggesting that benzodiazepines may be useful in controlling non-alcohol related delirium. Objectives To determine the effectiveness and incidence of adverse effects of benzodiazapines in […]

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Cholinesterase inhibitors for delirium

Abstract Background Delirium is now the preferred term to describe acute confusional states. It is experienced by 10 to 30% of all hospital inpatients. Delirium is potentially reversible and is related to several adverse outcomes, including increased hospital length of stay, poor functional status, persistent cognitive impairment, need for institutional care and probably mortality. Disruption […]

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Antipsychotics for delirium

Abstract Background Delirium occurs in up to 30% of hospitalised patients and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. Recently published reports have suggested that the standard drug for delirium, haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic that may cause adverse extrapyramidal symptoms among patients, may be replaced by atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone, […]

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Trazodone for agitation in dementia

Abstract Background Behavioural and psychiatric disturbances affect at least 50% of people with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Neuroleptic drugs are extensively prescribed to treat behavioural manifestations of dementia in spite of only modest efficacy and a high frequency of adverse effects. There is clearly a need for safer and more effective remedies. Trazodone is […]

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