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Search strategies to identify observational studies in MEDLINE and Embase

Abstract Background Systematic reviews are essential for decision‐making. Systematic reviews on observational studies help answer research questions on aetiology, risk, prognosis, and frequency of rare outcomes or complications. However, identifying observational studies as part of systematic reviews efficiently is challenging due to poor and inconsistent indexing in literature databases. Search strategies that include a methodological […]

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Exercise for preventing falls in older people living in the community

Abstract Background At least one‐third of community‐dwelling people over 65 years of age fall each year. Exercises that target balance, gait and muscle strength have been found to prevent falls in these people. An up‐to‐date synthesis of the evidence is important given the major long‐term consequences associated with falls and fall‐related injuries Objectives To assess […]

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Intraoperative neuromonitoring versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults undergoing thyroid surgery

Abstract Background Injuries to the recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (RILN) remain one of the major post‐operative complications after thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Damage to this nerve can result in a temporary or permanent palsy, which is associated with vocal cord paresis or paralysis. Visual identification of the RILN is a common procedure to prevent nerve […]

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Internet‐based cognitive and behavioural therapies for post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults

Abstract Background Therapist‐delivered trauma‐focused psychological therapies are an effective treatment for post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These have become the accepted first‐line treatments for the disorder. Despite the established evidence‐base for these therapies, they are not always widely available or accessible. Many barriers limit treatment uptake, such as the limited number of qualified therapists to deliver […]

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De‐escalation techniques for managing non‐psychosis induced aggression in adults

Abstract Background Aggression occurs frequently within health and social care settings. It can result in injury to patients and staff and can adversely affect staff performance and well‐being. De‐escalation is a widely used and recommended intervention for managing aggression, but the efficacy of the intervention as a whole and the specific techniques that comprise it […]

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Patient-mediated interventions to improve professional practice

Abstract Background Healthcare professionals are important contributors to healthcare quality and patient safety, but their performance does not always follow recommended clinical practice. There are many approachesto influencing practice among healthcare professionals. These approaches include audit and feedback, reminders, educational materials, educational outreach visits, educational meetings or conferences, use of local opinion leaders, financial incentives, […]

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Impact of medication reconciliation for improving transitions of care

Abstract Background Transitional care provides for the continuity of care as patients move between different stages and settings of care. Medication discrepancies arising at care transitions have been reported as prevalent and are linked with adverse drug events (ADEs) (e.g. rehospitalisation). Medication reconciliation is a process to prevent medication errors at transitions.Reconciliation involves building a […]

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Multifactorial and multiple component interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community

Abstract Background Falls and fall‐related injuries are common, particularly in those aged over 65, with around one‐third of older people living in the community falling at least once a year. Falls prevention interventions may comprise single component interventions (e.g. exercise), or involve combinations of two or more different types of intervention (e.g. exercise and medication […]

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Cognitive-behavioural interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults

Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, along with deficits in executive function, emotional regulation and motivation. The persistence of ADHD in adulthood is a serious clinical problem. ADHD significantly affects social interactions, study and employment performance. Previous studies suggest that cognitive-behavioural therapy […]

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Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine discontinuation in chronic benzodiazepine users

Abstract Background Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological […]

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