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De‐escalation techniques for managing non‐psychosis induced aggression in adults

Abstract Background Aggression occurs frequently within health and social care settings. It can result in injury to patients and staff and can adversely affect staff performance and well‐being. De‐escalation is a widely used and recommended intervention for managing aggression, but the efficacy of the intervention as a whole and the specific techniques that comprise it […]

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Impact of medication reconciliation for improving transitions of care

Abstract Background Transitional care provides for the continuity of care as patients move between different stages and settings of care. Medication discrepancies arising at care transitions have been reported as prevalent and are linked with adverse drug events (ADEs) (e.g. rehospitalisation). Medication reconciliation is a process to prevent medication errors at transitions.Reconciliation involves building a […]

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Multifactorial and multiple component interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community

Abstract Background Falls and fall‐related injuries are common, particularly in those aged over 65, with around one‐third of older people living in the community falling at least once a year. Falls prevention interventions may comprise single component interventions (e.g. exercise), or involve combinations of two or more different types of intervention (e.g. exercise and medication […]

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Processed electroencephalogram and evoked potential techniques for amelioration of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction following non‐cardiac and non‐neurosurgical procedures in adults

Abstract Background Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) may complicate a patient’s postoperative recovery in several ways. Monitoring of processed electroencephalogram (EEG) or evoked potential (EP) indices may prevent or minimize POD and POCD, probably through optimization of anaesthetic doses. Objectives To assess whether the use of processed EEG or auditory evoked potential […]

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Cognitive-behavioural interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults

Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, along with deficits in executive function, emotional regulation and motivation. The persistence of ADHD in adulthood is a serious clinical problem. ADHD significantly affects social interactions, study and employment performance. Previous studies suggest that cognitive-behavioural therapy […]

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Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine discontinuation in chronic benzodiazepine users

Abstract Background Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological […]

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E-learning for health professionals

Abstract Background The use of e-learning, defined as any educational intervention mediated electronically via the Internet, has steadily increased among health professionals worldwide. Several studies have attempted to measure the effects of e-learning in medical practice, which has often been associated with large positive effects when compared to no intervention and with small positive effects […]

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Eliciting adverse effects data from participants in clinical trials

Abstract Background Analysis of drug safety in clinical trials involves assessing adverse events (AEs) individually or by aggregate statistical synthesis to provide evidence of likely adverse drug reactions (ADR). While some AEs may be ascertained from physical examinations or tests, there is great reliance on reports from participants to detect subjective symptoms, where he/she is […]

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Providing physicians with feedback on medication adherence for people with chronic diseases taking long-term medication

Abstract Background Poor medication adherence decreases treatment efficacy and worsens clinical outcomes, but average rates of adherence to long-term pharmacological treatments for chronic illnesses are only about 50%. Interventions for improving medication adherence largely focus on patients rather than on physicians; however, the strategies shown to be effective are complex and difficult to implement in […]

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Bupropion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults

Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobiological condition, characterised by behavioral and cognitive symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity and/or excessive activity. The syndrome is commonly accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities and is associated with educational and occupational underachievement. Although psychostimulant medications are the mainstay of treatment for ADHD, not all adults respond […]

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