Medical care

Interventions for eye movement disorders due to acquired brain injury

Abstract Background Acquired brain injury can cause eye movement disorders which may include: strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus, causing visual symptoms of double, blurred or ‘juddery’ vision and reading difficulties. A wide range of interventions exist that have potential to alleviate or ameliorate these symptoms. There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of these […]

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Elevation of the head during intensive care management in people with severe traumatic brain injury

Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem and a fundamental cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of TBI disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. Intracranial hypertension is the most frequent cause of death and disability in brain-injured people. Special interventions in the intensive care unit are required to […]

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Interventions for managing skeletal muscle spasticity following traumatic brain injury

Abstract Background Skeletal muscle spasticity is a major physical complication resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can lead to muscle contracture, joint stiffness, reduced range of movement, broken skin and pain. Treatments for spasticity include a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, often used in combination. Management of spasticity following TBI varies from other […]

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Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury

Abstract Background Uncontrolled bleeding is an important cause of death in trauma victims. Antifibrinolytic treatment has been shown to reduce blood loss following surgery and may also be effective in reducing blood loss following trauma. Objectives To assess the effect of antifibrinolytic drugs in patients with acute traumatic injury. Search methods We ran the most […]

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Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing meningitis in patients with basilar skull fractures

Abstract Background Basilar skull fractures predispose patients to meningitis because of the possible direct contact of bacteria in the paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx or middle ear with the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage has been associated with a greater risk of contracting meningitis. Antibiotics are often given prophylactically, although their role in preventing […]

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Pharmacological interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Abstract Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder which, after a sufficient delay, may be diagnosed amongst individuals who respond with intense fear, helplessness or horror to traumatic events. There is some evidence that the use of pharmacological interventions immediately after exposure to trauma may reduce the risk of developing of PTSD. Objectives […]

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Barbiturates for acute traumatic brain injury

Abstract Background Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important complication of severe brain injury, and is associated with high mortality. Barbiturates are believed to reduce ICP by suppressing cerebral metabolism, thus reducing cerebral metabolic demands and cerebral blood volume. However, barbiturates also reduce blood pressure and may, therefore, adversely effect cerebral perfusion pressure. Objectives To […]

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Aminosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury

Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of premature death and disability. Post-traumatic membrane lipid peroxidation has been proposed as one mechanism leading to secondary brain damage following head injury. Aminosteroids have been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation in laboratory animals and have the potential to improve outcome following head injury. Objectives To […]

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  • The review abstracts published on this site are the property of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., and of the Cochrane Review Groups that have produced the reviews.
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