Critical illness

Interventions for preventing intensive care unit delirium in adults

Abstract Background Delirium is defined as a disturbance in attention, awareness and cognition with reduced ability to direct, focus, sustain and shift attention, and reduced orientation to the environment. Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) frequently develop ICUdelirium. It can profoundly affect both them and their families because it is associated with […]

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Follow‐up services for improving long‐term outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors

Abstract Background The intensive care unit (ICU) stay has been linked with a number of physical and psychological sequelae, known collectively as post‐intensive care syndrome (PICS). Specific ICU follow‐up servicesare relatively recent developments in health systems, and may have the potential to address PICS through targeting unmet health needs arising from the experience of the […]

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Melatonin for the promotion of sleep in adults in the intensive care unit

Abstract Background Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience sleep deprivation caused by environmental disruption, such as high noise levels and 24‐hour lighting, as well as increased patient care activities and invasive monitoring as part of their care. Sleep deprivation affects physical and psychological health, and patients perceive the quality of their sleep to […]

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Early intervention (mobilization or active exercise) for critically ill adults in the intensive care unit

Abstract Background Survivors of critical illness often experience a multitude of problems that begin in the intensive care unit (ICU) or present and continue after discharge. These can include muscle weakness, cognitive impairments, psychological difficulties, reduced physical function such as in activities of daily living (ADLs), and decreased quality of life. Early interventions such as […]

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Propofol for the promotion of sleep in adults in the intensive care unit

Background People in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience sleep deprivation caused by environmental disruption, such as high noise levels and 24-hour lighting, as well as increased patient care activities and invasive monitoring as part of their care. Sleep deprivation affects physical and psychological health, and people perceive the quality of their sleep to be […]

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Elevation of the head during intensive care management in people with severe traumatic brain injury

Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem and a fundamental cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of TBI disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. Intracranial hypertension is the most frequent cause of death and disability in brain-injured people. Special interventions in the intensive care unit are required to […]

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Ultrasonography for confirmation of gastric tube placement

Abstract Background Gastric tubes are commonly used for the administration of drugs and tube feeding for people who are unable to swallow. Feeding via a tube misplaced in the trachea can result in severe pneumonia. Therefore, the confirmation of tube placement in the stomach after tube insertion is important. Recent studies have reported that ultrasonography […]

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Pre-hospital versus in-hospital initiation of cooling for survival and neuroprotection after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Abstract Background Targeted temperature management (also known under ‘therapeutic hypothermia’, ‘induced hypothermia’”, or ‘cooling’) has been shown to be beneficial for neurological outcome in patients who have had successful resuscitation from sudden cardiac arrest, but it remains unclear when this intervention should be initiated. Objectives To assess the effects of pre-hospital initiation of cooling on […]

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Routine intracranial pressure monitoring in acute coma

Abstract Background We know that the brain damage resulting from traumatic and other insults is not due solely to the direct consequences of the primary injury. A significant and potentially preventable contribution to the overall morbidity arises from secondary hypoxic-ischaemic damage. Brain swelling accompanied by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) prevents adequate cerebral perfusion with well-oxygenated […]

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Non-pharmacological interventions for sleep promotion in the intensive care unit

Abstract Background Adults in intensive care units (ICUs) often suffer from a lack of sleep or frequent sleep disruptions. Non-pharmacological interventions can improve the duration and quality of sleep and decrease the risk of sleep disturbance, delirium, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the length of stay in the ICU. However, there is no clear evidence […]

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