Movement disorders

Botulinum toxin type A versus anticholinergics for cervical dystonia

Abstract Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005. Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia and is a highly disabling movement disorder, characterised by involuntary, usually painful, head posturing. Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered the first line therapy for this condition. Before BtA, […]

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Botulinum toxin type A therapy for blepharospasm

Abstract Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005. Blepharospasm is the second most common form of focal dystonia. It is a disabling disorder, characterised by chronic, intermittent or persistent, involuntary eyelid closure, due to spasmodic contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscles. Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered […]

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Botulinum toxin type A therapy for hemifacial spasm

  Abstract Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review, first published in 2005. Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterised by unilateral, involuntary contractions of the muscles innervated by the facial nerve. It is a chronic disorder, and spontaneous recovery is very rare. The two treatments routinely available are microvascular decompression and intramuscular injections with […]

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Botulinum toxin type A therapy for cervical dystonia

Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005. Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia, and is a highly disabling movement disorder, characterised by involuntary, usually painful, head posturing. Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered the first line therapy for this condition. Objectives To compare […]

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GLP-1 receptor agonists for Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive disorder characterised by both motor and non‐motor problems. Glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) receptor agonists, licensed for treatment of type 2 diabetes, work by stimulating GLP‐1 receptors in the pancreas, which triggers the release of insulin. GLP‐1 receptors have been found in the brain. Insulin signalling in the brain […]

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Cognitive training interventions for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract Plain language summary Cognitive training interventions for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease Review question We wanted to know whether cognitive training interventions are effective in improving cognition (thinking) in people with Parkinson’s disease dementia or mild cognitive impairment. Background Approximately 60% to 80% of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) develop some […]

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Deep brain stimulation for dystonia

Abstract Background Dystonia is a painful and disabling disorder, characterised by painful, involuntary posturing of the affected body region(s). Deep brain stimulation is an intervention typically reserved for severe and drug‐refractory cases, although uncertainty exists regarding its efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Objectives To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) versus […]

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Iron for the treatment of restless legs syndrome

Abstract Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic disorder that is associated with peripheral iron deficiency in a subgroup of patients. It is unclear whether iron therapy is effective treatment for RLS. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral or parenteral iron for the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) when […]

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Trihexyphenidyl for dystonia in cerebral palsy

Abstract Background Cerebral palsy occurs in up to 2.1 of every 1000 live births and encompasses a range of motor problems and movement disorders. One commonly occurring movement disorder amongst those with cerebral palsy is dystonia: sustained or intermittent involuntary muscle spasms and contractions that cause twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. The involuntary contractions […]

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Abstract Background Chronic antipsychotic drug treatment may cause tardive dyskinesia (TD), a long-term movement disorder. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist drugs, which have intense sedative properties and may exacerbate psychotic symptoms, have been used to treat TD. Objectives 1. Primary objective The primary objective was to determine whether using non-benzodiazepine GABA agonist drugs for at least […]

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